About Us



  • Mumbai has very long history. The old records show the existence of Mumbai since 1337 and the original occupants at that time living on seven separate islands  were mainly kolies, the fishing folk, and the earliest settlers.
  • After that the Mohammedens came to Mumbai in 1338 and the Portuguese in 1534. Lastly, the Britishers 1661 who had the longest stay till 1947.
  • Britishers during their stay brought good as well as bad things. Amongst the good things was the industrial development of India particularly of Mumbai. Due to the industrialization migration started and to accommodate the exodus Mumbai came in existence by joining seven isolated islands.
  • In earlier days Britishers used stone, brick and wood as the principal material for town building. To make this material available Britishers gave the plots of land on hills to some people in form of “Vatan” or “Inam”. These vatan or inam holders were called as khot and the land given to them called as “khoti land”. These khots quarried the hills for town building i.e. joining seven islands and for building construction without any consideration of environment ecology and topography. Till recently nobody thought about what will be the consequent geological hazards due to joining seven islands and reclamation of sea with quarried material. Indian logistics adopted the khoti wadis. No efforts were made to know what happens to the rivers emerging from these hills the drainage problems, the geology or the topography of the town.
  • Quarrying and reclamation were the needs of civilization but now turned into ecological, legal, economical and social problems. The dimensions of these issues are very vast. Even today, after so many decades of planning, the principal material for construction is stone only but in different forms of concrete.
  • Today these materials are being quarried from the hills (except for sand) above the ground level (because it is cheaper to excavate above the ground) by conventional old dated methods spoiling the environment. Earlier these quarries were outside the city limits but due to immense and rapid growth of Mumbai now these quarries have come within the city boundaries. Till today everybody thought of using the quarried material but not the hazards to the land, ecology, diversion of water courses and other environmental effects. The planning authority also never thought of future use of these quarries for the mankind, considering above mentioned issues or needs of growing city.
  • Due to industrialization, trading, transportation, economic, educational and administrative base many people are coming to Mumbai. Their greed for space has lead is also being reclaimed with modern equipments with the quarried material.  Because of the greed of earning money fast, this material is not only used within the country but is also sent abroad to such an extent to make one believe that “mountains are being exported”.
  • On a careful examination of the historical records and earlier topographical maps of Mumbai, one finds that a number of hills have already vanished from Mumbai and the height and size of the remaining hills is decreasing with time. Most of the existing hills are already devoid of vegetation and extensive quarrying activities are being carried out at these hills. Hutments are being put up at an alarmingly fast pace on the hills. Every year landslides take place at these hill and some of them result in loss of life and property. It has become customary for authorities to warn every year in monsoon the dwellers at the hill slopes against landslides.  Different types of damages are being caused to the hills and mountains of Mumbai. This study will enable us to assess the changes those have undergone so far by quarrying of hills and reclamation (which is a byproduct of quarrying) around Mumbai together with planned land use and would enable us to help in recommending optimal use of resources.
  • Apart from the aesthetic value, one can expect a change in the quality of air, land and water and through this the flora and fauna and human beings which in turn may trigger a state of inequilibrium in ecosystem.

    It is not only that retaining these hills is important from environmental considerations but also from defence point of view. Invisibility in advantageous in war. Our prestigious Bhabha Atomic Research Station. Nhava, Sheva Project are located in hill ranges. Hence those are naturally protected from the enemy. Secondly the radars from hill-tops can penetrate deep into the enemy areas above the high rise buildings of Mumbai. It will be suicidal to cut these hills as we will lose both our defence as well as attack mechanisms.

    The standard of quarried material and the management of quarries is also not satisfactory. Both of them can be improved to economise construction cost. 

    The existing hills of Mumbai also shield the western part of the island from pollution and probable hazard fire or gas leakout from Trans Thane Belapur Chemical Industry.

    After considering all these issues of past, present and also future on studying the methods used in developed countries, as well as useful Architectural and Town Planning concepts, the future scope of development, preservation and conversation of hills for better city development and environment is explained in this work.